I decided I wanted new bars for my twin cam. These are stainless steel. The risers were machined from solid, with a 1" tube welded into the top. I prefer to use 7/8" throttles and controls, so the two outer sections step down in diameter. The upward bends started as solid stock with both ends machined for a socket fit. Then I torch bent them to the curve I wanted. The grip tubes were bent in my tube bender. Every connection is seam welded and plug welded.